APDMAT32 Sensors and Measurement of Physical Quantities

Institute of physics in Opava
winter 2022
Extent and Intensity
2/2/0. 6 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
doc. RNDr. Stanislav Hledík, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. Daniel Charbulák, Ph.D. (seminar tutor)
Guaranteed by
doc. RNDr. Stanislav Hledík, Ph.D.
Institute of physics in Opava
Thu 9:45–11:20 SM-UF
  • Timetable of Seminar Groups:
APDMAT32/A: Thu 11:25–13:00 SM-UF, D. Charbulák
Prerequisites (in Czech)
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The aim of the course is to provide students with knowledge of the basics of measuring non-electrical physical quantities using electrical sensor based methods.
Learning outcomes
Upon successful completion, the student masters:
- theoretical principles of sensors and sensors of physical quantities;
- the choice of appropriate measurement methods applicable to environmental monitoring;
- thanks to the knowledge of basic physical principles and statistical methods, has the ability to critically assess and interpret the results obtained.
  • 1. Physical fundamentals of semiconductors. Introduction; Molecules and atomic bonds. Crystal structure of substances. Crystal lattice defects, dotation. Basic properties of semiconductors; own semiconductors, non-own semiconductors; current conduction in semiconductors; basic properties of a semiconductor junction; metal-semiconductor junction, PN, VA junction (volt-ampere characteristics) and its description, junction breakdown in the closing direction (avalanche, Zener, temperature, surface). Technological implementation of PN transitions.

    2. Discrete semiconductor components: diode replacement diagram, commutation, basic applications, design, VA characteristics and applications; bipolar transistors: essence of activity - transistor phenomenon, PNP and NPN transistor, design, use, basic connection of transistor (SB, SE, SC). Unipolar transistors (JFET, MOSFET), the nature of FET operation, design, characteristics.

    3. Sensor definition. Types and properties of sensors. Dividing sensors of sensor generation. Properties and errors of the analog sensor: static and dynamic. Elimination of sensor errors: compensation and differential sensor, signal filtering, feedback.

    4. Resistance sensors. Resistance position sensors, types of potentiometers and their properties. Deformation sensors: properties of strain gauges and their types (pressure, deformation, metal, semiconductor). Temperature sensors: metal, semiconductor. Light radiation sensors: photoresistors, photodiodes (PIN, avalanche, Schottky, hetero-transition), phototransistors, photothyristors, infrared sensors. Resistance sensors for vacuum, fluid velocity, nuclear radiation, electrical and magnetic quantities.

    5. Capacitive sensors. Sensor properties. Principle of measurement, use and construction of the sensor.

    6. Inductive sensors. Sensor properties. Measurement principle: sensor with moving coil, with open magnetic circuit, with suppressed field, sensor without ferromagnet. Liquid velocity sensor: principle, sensor with conductive and non-conductive flow channel. Use of inductive sensors.

    7. Radiation sensors. Properties, types of sensors and measuring principle: vacuum, gas-filled, photomultipliers. Semiconductor sensors, PIR detectors, CCD camera sensors, nuclear radiation detectors.

    8. Piezoelectric sensors. Sensor properties. Measurement principle, use for vibration measurement. Sensor replacement circuit.

    9. Thermoelectric sensors. Sensor properties. Measurement principle. Seebec and Peltier effect. Parasitic effects and their elimination.

    10. Other sensors. Sensors for measuring the physical properties of liquids and solids, sensors for measuring and analyzing the composition and concentration of substances. Sensors and devices for biometric, biochemical and medical applications. Smart sensors and micro analyzers.
    required literature
  • Zehnula K. Snímače neelektrických veličin. Praha, 1983.
  • Ripka P., Ďaďo S., Kreidl M., Novák J.: Senzory a převodníky. Vydavatelství ČVUT, Praha, 2005.
    recommended literature
  • M. Vala. Fyzikální základy elektrotechniky a elektroniky I. Ostravská Universita, 2002. ISBN 80-7042-239-4.
  • Haasz, Miloš Sedláček. Elektrická měření - přístroje a metody. ČVUT, 2003. ISBN 80-01-02761-7.
  • Sobotka. Přehled číslicových systému. Praha, 1981.
Teaching methods
lectures; exercises
Assessment methods
Attendance at seminars 75%, elaboration of assigned seminar papers from seminars, successful completion of the written and oral part of the exam.
Language of instruction
Further Comments
The course is taught annually.
The course is also listed under the following terms winter 2020, winter 2021.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
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