APDMAT41 Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Institute of physics in Opava
summer 2023
Extent and Intensity
4/2/0. 7 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Teacher(s)
doc. Ing. Petr Habrman, CSc. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
doc. Ing. Petr Habrman, CSc.
Institute of physics in Opava
Timetable
Tue 10:35–12:10 425, Thu 10:35–12:10 425
  • Timetable of Seminar Groups:
APDMAT41/01: Thu 12:15–13:00 425, P. Habrman
Prerequisites
( FAKULTA ( FU ) && TYP_STUDIA ( B ))
APUNAT12 && APUNAT22 && APUNA023
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is only offered to the students of the study fields the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The course is the fourth part of the basic course of physics. The explanation of the physical properties of the atomic shell and the nucleus is based mainly on the findings of experimental physics and quantum mechanics.
Learning outcomes
After completing this course, students should be able to:
- explain the origin of atomic quantum numbers and periodic table, the origin of X-rays and the formation of atomic spectra,
- demonstrate quantitative knowledge of the properties of atomic nuclei on the basis of the liquid drop and shell models,
- demonstrate knowledge of radioactive decay, nuclear reactions and the interaction of radiation in matter,
- describe alpha decay, beta decay, nuclear fission and fusion, and calculate the energy released in nuclear reactions.
Syllabus
  • From atoms to nanotechnologies. Overview of the results of modern analytical and imaging methods. The charge in the electric and magnetic field. Properties of electron. Principle of mass spectrometer.
    Blackbody radiation. Stefan Boltzmann's law. Wien's laws. Planck's law and the quantization of energy.
    Wave-particle duality. Photoelectric effect, Compton effect. De Broglie's hypothesis. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
    Atom structure. Rutherford's experiment and planetary model of atom. Rutherford's formula.
    Hydrogen atom. Spectral series of hydrogen atom. Bohr's model of hydrogen atom. Spectra of alkali metal atoms.
    Introduction to quantum mechanics. Wave function in quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation. Energy quantization. Potential barrier and tunneling phenomenon. Quantum numbers. Vector model of atom.
    Selected experiments in atomic physics. Atoms in magnetic field. Quantization of energy and spin of electron.
    Poly-electrons atoms. Pauli's exclusion principle. Shell model. Periodicity of quantum states of electrons.
    X-rays. Characteristic X-ray emission and bremsstrahlung. Moseley's law. Auger's effect. Application of X-rays.
    Atomic nucleus. Nuclear radius. Moments of nuclei. Mass defect and binding energy. Nuclear force.
    Models of nucleus. Liquid drop model, Weizsäcker formula. Statistical model, fermion gas. Energy levels and shell model.
    Nuclear transformations. Types and mechanisms of nuclear reactions. Consequences of conservation laws. Cross section of nuclear reaction. Nuclear reactions induced by charged and uncharged particles. Cross sections of selected nuclear reactions with neutrons.
    Nuclear fission and fusion. Fission reaction mechanism, energy balance, fission chain reaction with and without moderator, energy reactor. Thermonuclear fusion and energy balance, Lawson's conditions and perspectives for the realization.
    Radioactivity. Decay law, radioactive series, decay schemes. Alpha decay, Geiger Nutall's rule. Beta decay, energy spectrum, neutrino. Gamma conversion.
    Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. Passage of heavy charged particles and electrons through matter, comparison of ionization and radiation losses. Interaction of photons with matter, attenuation law.
    Particle accelerators. Principles of acceleration. Circular accelerators. Linear accelerators. Collider.
Literature
    required literature
  • HABRMAN P. Atomová a jaderná fyzika. Elektronická sbírka příkladů. SU Opava, 2005.
  • HALLIDAY D., RESNICK R., WALKER J. Fyzika. Část 4 a 5. VUTIUM Brno, 2013. ISBN 978-80-214-4123-1.
  • LILLEY J. S. Nuclear Physics. Principles and Applications. Wiley, Chichester, 2005. ISBN 0-471-97936-8.
    recommended literature
  • TURNER J. E. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection. Wiley, New York, 2007. ISBN 978-3-527-40606-7.
  • LEROY C. Principles of Radiation Interaction in Matter and Detection. 4th ed., World Scientific, 2016, ISBN 978-981-4603-18-8.
  • WILSON E. J. N. An Introduction to Particle Accelerators. Oxford University, 2001. ISBN 0-19-850829-8.
Teaching methods
Lecture with discussion
Demonstration
Assessment methods
Course credit
- participation in seminars is mandatory,
- two written intrasemester tests and solved credit tasks (success rate 70%).
Exam
- written test and oral exam.
Language of instruction
Czech
Further Comments
The course is taught annually.
The course is also listed under the following terms summer 2021, summer 2022.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
  • Permalink: https://is.slu.cz/course/fu/summer2023/APDMAT41